Time-Dilated Light (A Constructive Theory of
Relativity) Edward G. Lake July 18, 2016
Abstract:
Albert Einstein’s Principled
Special Theory of Relativity ^{[1]} states
that a moving object will experience time running
slower than a stationary object. I.e., it
will experience dilated time. This has
been confirmed many times with atomic clocks. If the speed
of light is defined as 299,792 kilometers per second,
the question then becomes: Whose
second? The
Constructive
Theory of Relativity defined here shows that light
emitted by a distant time-dilated object will arrive
at the earth at 299,792 kilometers per the object’s
second, not
per Earth second.
Light from celestial objects does not arrive at
any “universal speed of light,” but arrives at widely
varied velocities depending upon the emitting object’s
velocity through space and its proximity to any
gravitational mass.
A photon or
wave of light is created when an electron orbiting the
nucleus of an atom drops from a high energy orbit to a
lower energy orbit.
That creates an excess amount of energy. The excess
energy can't just disappear, so it is emitted from the
atom as a photon of light. The energy of
the photon depends on the difference in energy between
the two orbits of the electron.^{[2] } When light is
emitted from the atom, it does not have to accelerate to
the “speed of light.”
It is emitted at the speed
of light. When
the electron drops from its high orbit to its lower
orbit, it supposedly does so instantly. However, the
light that is emitted is emitted at a finite speed.
The
question then becomes: What is the speed of that
specific photon of light? The postulate
defined here is: When a photon or wave of light is
emitted from an atom, it is emitted at the “speed of
light” at the location of the atom that emitted the
photon. As
stated previously, the photon does not have to
accelerate up to the speed of light. It instantly
goes from velocity zero to 299,792 kilometers per local second.
^{[3] } And, as
Einstein’s Theories of Relativity show, Time does not pass at a
constant rate throughout the universe. Emission
Theory Emission
theory ^{[4]} is the thoroughly disproved
theory that light emitted by an object will travel at
the speed of light plus or minus the speed of the
object. It was first
proposed by Isaac Newton. In his
“corpuscular theory,” Newton visualized light
"corpuscles" being thrown off from hot bodies at a
nominal speed of c with respect to the emitting object,
and obeying the usual laws of Newtonian mechanics. If true, that
would cause the light from a moving object that is
coming straight toward the observer to travel at a
velocity that is combined with the velocity of the
distant emitter (c + v).
Likewise, if the object was moving away from the
observer, light would travel at a velocity where the
object’s receding velocity is subtracted from the
emitted speed of light (c – v). Simple
experiments have thoroughly proved this theory to be
untrue. For
example, it would require a moon orbiting around Mars,
Jupiter or Saturn to appear to travel noticeably faster
when moving toward an observer on Earth (c + v) than
when it is at the opposite side of its orbit and moving
away from the observer on Earth (c – v). That doesn’t
happen. Albert
Einstein is supposed to have worked on his own emission
theory before abandoning it in favor of the version of
his Special Theory of Relativity that he published in
1905. Many
years later R.S. Shankland reported Einstein as saying
that Walter Ritz' emission theory had been "very bad" in
places and that he himself had eventually discarded
emission theory because he could think of no form of
differential equations that described it, since it leads
to the waves of light becoming "all mixed up".^{[5]} But, while
light may not come to us in the way that was used to
disprove Corpuscular/Emission Theory, it appears light
still comes to us “all mixed up,” i.e. at different
velocities. Time
Dilation due to Velocity In his 1905
paper, “On the
Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies,” Albert Einstein
explained that Time will run slower for an object that is moving,
compared to a stationary object. For
convenience, he used clocks to describe how movement
(velocity) dilates (slows down) Time: If
at
the points A and B of K there are stationary clocks
which, viewed in the stationary system, are synchronous;
and if the clock at A is moved with the velocity v
along the line AB to B, then on its arrival at B the two
clocks no longer synchronize, but the clock moved from A
to B lags behind the other which has remained at B by ½tv^{2}/c^{2}
(up to magnitudes of fourth and higher order), t
being the time occupied in the journey from A to B. In other
words, if you have two stationary clocks that are in
sync and one is moved, the clock that was moved will
show less time has passed than the clock that remained
stationary. Einstein then
goes on to explain that a clock at the equator, where
the earth is moving around its axis at about 1,000 miles
per hour, will run slower than a clock at the North
Pole, which is not really moving but just rotating in
place once every 24 hours. While the paper
doesn’t explicitly say so, the implication is that every
location between the equator and the North Pole will
experience time moving at a slightly different rate. Time will run
slower in Los Angeles than in San Francisco, and time in
San Diego will run slower than time in Los Angeles. The differences
are, of course, so tiny – fractions of a microsecond –
that the differences would not only be unnoticed, they
also would be extremely difficult to measure by our best
instruments. Unfortunately,
Einstein’s 1905 paper doesn’t make clear exactly how
Time Dilation works.
What is “Time”
if it can slow down?
It certainly isn’t just a “concept.” Einstein doesn’t
say because it is a principle-based theory, not a
constructed theory based on observations. In
my paper “What is Time?”^{[6]} I explain that
“Time is particle spin.”
While no one currently really knows exactly what
“particle spin” is, it can be visualized as a regularly
repeating phenomenon within the particles within atoms,
which has the effect of generating or controlling local
time. If
the atom containing the particle is stationary in
otherwise empty space, the result will be that time is
generated at its maximum interval value. A “second”
measured by that particle will be as short in duration
as it is possible for a second to be. So, the speed
of light will be 299,792 kilometers per the shortest
possible second. If
some force causes the atom and its particles to move,
the duration of a second for that atom will increase. Of course,
atoms that are part of a larger body, such as a space
ship, will all experience the same amount of time
dilation when the space ship moves. This
means that, if some phenomenon occurs once per second in
an “at rest” or “stationary” environment, it will also
occur once per second in a moving environment – even
though the length of a second will be different. Thus,
if you are measuring the speed of light by bouncing the
light off of mirrors in a laboratory on earth, you will
find that the speed of light is 299,792 kilometers per
second (kps). And
if you perform the same experiment aboard a space ship
that is traveling through space at very high velocities,
you will also find that the speed of light is 299,792
kilometers per second.
What must then be understood is that the reason
this happens is because the length of a second is
different at the locations of the two experiments. Special
Relativity Most
discussions of Time Dilation usually quickly turn into
discussions about Relativity. The
discussions stop being about what is actually
happening and become discussions about what is perceived
to be happening. There
seems to be a popular misconception that if something is
“relative,” it isn’t real, it is just what is perceived. In my
paper “Time Dilation Re-visualized”^{[7]} I
explained that Time Dilation works independently from
Relativity and needs to be understood independently
before you can fully understand all of the relativistic
aspects of Time itself.
It must also be understood that when Einstein
wrote the words “a universal constant—the velocity of
light in empty space” in his 1905 paper, the “universe”
he was writing about was a hypothetical
universe he created in which there existed only two
clocks. It
appears that a great many people understand his phrase
“universal constant” to apply to our massive universe
where there are countless objects that can be considered
to be “clocks” measuring the passage of time, and most
such “clocks” do not tick at the same rate as clocks on
Earth. In
his 1905 paper, Einstein also wrote: It
is essential to have time defined by means of stationary
clocks in the stationary system, and the time now
defined being appropriate to the stationary system we
call it “the time of the stationary system.” The
“stationary system” he was writing about is that same
hypothetical system with two clocks, and “stationary”
simply means the two clocks are not changing their
distance from one another. Einstein
also wrote: light
is always propagated in empty space with a definite
velocity c
which
is independent of the state of motion of the emitting
body. The
statement above seems to relate to Isaac Newton’s
Corpuscular Emission Theory, but it could mean that
light emitted from an object is emitted instantly and
is thus not affected by the direction in which the
object is moving. Light
is emitted ahead of and behind the moving at the same
speed. Einstein
also wrote, If
we wish to describe the motion
of
a material point, we give the values of its co-ordinates
as functions of the time. Now we must bear carefully in
mind that a mathematical description of this kind has no
physical meaning unless we are quite clear as to what we
understand by “time.” He
says Time must be defined as it occurs in a “stationary
system.” The
problem is that a “stationary system” is also entirely
hypothetical. No
one can create such a system with current technology. This
also aggravates the problem of viewing Time Dilation as
being all about what is perceived instead of being about
what actually happens. When
the speed of light is measured here on Earth as being
299,792 kps and it is also measured as traveling at
299,792 kps aboard a space ship moving at 50% of the
speed of light, it should be clear that there is some actual
difference in the length of a second, not just a perceived
difference. If
the crew of the space ship sends a beam of laser light
toward the Earth, the laser light will travel at the
speed of light as it is determined to be (and actually
is) aboard the space ship.
It will not somehow change speed when it exits
the space ship. The
light will arrive at the Earth traveling much slower
than light is measured to travel from point to point on
Earth. Time
Dilated Light Therefore, we
can use Einstein’s formula for calculating Time Dilation^{[8]}
to calculate the difference in the speed of light
emitted from a stationary object versus a moving object. If light is
emitted from an object that is traveling at 10% of the
speed of light (29,979.2 kps), one second at a
stationary location (assume Earth is stationary) will be
1.0050377997499 seconds aboard that space ship. That means
that the emitted light from the space ship will be
traveling 292,792.458 kilometers in 1.0050377997499
seconds. And
light traveling at that speed would be traveling at
298,289.675 kps when it reaches “stationary” Earth, or
1,502.78 kps slower
than the speed of light is measured here on Earth. If a
stationary observer (or an observer on Earth) mistakenly
assumes that all
light is coming to him at 299,792.458 kilometers per his second, he
may mistakenly assume the moving object in the previous
paragraph is farther away than it really is. If the moving
object is actually 298,289 kilometers away, he may
mistakenly assume that it is 299,792 kilometers away if
he somehow calculates it took one Earth second for the
light from it to reach him, an error of 1,503
kilometers. In
other words: Distant objects may be closer than they
appear. Another key
point is that light coming from a distant object is
affected by the speed of that object, but unlike
classical Corpuscular/Emission Theory, the direction the
object is moving has no effect on the light it emits. The only
slowing effect comes from the magnitude of dilated time
being experienced by the object. Gravitational
Time Dilation Of course,
light emitted by some massive object, like virtually any
star in the visible universe, will also be affected by gravitational
time dilation. This
may result in a significantly larger error than would be
caused only by velocity time dilation. Since the only
difference is the specific cause of the
dilation of time, and that cause will not affect the
postulate that “light emitted from a time-dilated object
will be correspondingly time dilated,” there seems no
need to provide here any examples of the slowing of
light due to gravitational time dilation. The bigger the
star, the larger the error will be whenever it is
falsely assumed that light from it travels at 299,792
kilometers per the observer’s second. Light from our
Sun does not arrive at the Earth at the speed of light
measured by equipment here on Earth. It travels at
a slower
speed. Implications What
are the implications of this Theory of Time Dilated
Light? While
it does mean that the speed of light coming to us from
distant stars is highly variable and is mostly coming
slower than we assume, there can be no effect on any
part of Einstein’s theories, since, as far as Relativity
is concerned, both this Time Dilated Light Theory and
Einstein’s Theories of Relativity merely confirm that
all Time is “local” and thus can and will be different
in different locations. Simultaneity Time-Dilated
Light certainly does not affect simultaneity. In his 1905
paper, Einstein explained: If
at the point A of space there is a clock, an observer at
A can determine the time values of events in the
immediate proximity of A by finding the positions of the
hands which are simultaneous with these events. If there
is at the point B of space another clock in all respects
resembling the one at A, it is possible for an observer
at B to determine the time values of events in the
immediate neighbourhood of B. But it is not possible
without further assumption to compare, in respect of
time, an event at A with an event at B. We have so far
defined only an “A time” and a “B time.” We have not
defined a common “time” for A and B, for the latter
cannot be defined at all unless we establish by
definition that
the “time” required by light to travel from A to B
equals the “time” it requires to travel from B to A. If
time-dilated light travels from Point A to Point B at
the same speed as it travels from point B to Point A,
Time at those two points are synchronous, and the speed
of light will be identical – because the length of a
second was identical at both points. Stellar
Distances The
primary technique for calculating the distance to nearby
stars is called “trigonometric parallax”^{[9]}
and is based on geometry, but it is only good for up to
about 500 light-years. The principle behind this method
is elegantly simple: Earth orbits the Sun at a known
radius, and when the Earth is at opposite ends of its
orbit it results in a star appearing in a slightly
different positions against distant background stars, That
difference in angles allow us to use simple trigonometry
to calculate how far away it is. It is basic
trigonometry: The
base of the triangle is the distance between the earth
in summer and the earth in winter, and the angles to the
star from those locations provide the other two sides of
the triangle and the distance to the star. Time Dilation
is not a factor. For
stars that are farther away than 500 light-years, the
angles are too small to use trigonometry, so astronomers
use various techniques involving the brightness of the
star to determine its distance. Such
techniques also appear to be unaffected by time
dilation. But
they only work to distances of about 150,000 light
years, or just beyond the borders of our Milky Way
galaxy. For
measuring the distance to stars in other galaxies (the
Large Magellanic Cloud is the nearest at 160,000
light-years away) astronomers must measure the magnitude
of stars that vary a little in their brightness, called
Cepheid Variables. Cepheid Variables are pulsating
variable stars have a period over which they go from
maximum brightness to minimum brightness and then back
to maximum brightness. In addition, the star’s variable
period is directly related to its absolute magnitude
(i.e., the greater its absolute magnitude, the longer
its period), as discovered by Henrietta Leavitt (1868 -
1921). Since Cepheid variable stars are rather abundant
in space, astronomers simply measure the star’s period,
determine its absolute magnitude and then, together with
the relative magnitude that can also be measured, use
mathematics to determine distance. Time-dilation
does not appear to be a factor because the only time
involved is the variation period as viewed from earth. The
Expanding Universe Theories
about the rate the universe is expanding around us do
not come from changes in the measurements of distances
to stars. Expansion
theories primarily come from the calculated velocities
of celestial objects as they move through the visible
universe. Primarily,
they come from the differences in the “red shift” of
light for objects at different distances. In
1929 Edwin Hubble, working at the Carnegie Observatories
in Pasadena, California, measured the redshifts of a
number of distant galaxies.^{[10]} He also
measured their relative distances by measuring the
apparent brightness of the Cepheid class of variable
stars in each galaxy. When
he plotted redshift against relative distance, he found
that the redshift of distant galaxies increased as a
linear function of their distance. The only explanation
for this observation was that the universe was
expanding. Unfortunately,
red-shifting doesn’t tell you who is moving. It just says
the distance between the light emitter and the observer
is increasing. In
addition, equipment used to measure red-shifting is
calibrated for Earth’s speed of light, which means that
such equipment cannot tell if the increase in wave
length is the result of the velocity of the source or if
it is due to the wave moving slower through the
measuring equipment than the equipment was calibrated to
assume. Nevertheless,
red-shifting of light is used to determine the velocity
of an object as it moves away from the observer. If the light
is “blue-shifted,” that means the object is coming
toward the observer.
However, in a situation where neither object nor
observer is stationary,^{[11]} and both are
moving, the rate of movement determined by red-shifting
must be shared by both objects. Some of the
movement belongs to the distant object moving away from
Earth, and some of the movement is the Earth’s movement
away from the distant object. The
question then becomes: Are cosmologists and
mathematicians taking into consideration the
time-dilated light as described in this paper? If, due to
time-dilation, light from a distant object is coming
slower than they assume, then the distance to the
emitting object is actually closer than they assume. More
importantly, if everything was moving faster when they
universe was younger, when we were all closer to the
spot where “The Big Bang” occurred, then light from
distant objects would be coming at much slower speeds
than is currently assumed.
When we look back at an object as it existed 10
billion light years ago, that object would have been
moving a lot faster away from the center of the Big Bang
back then than it is today. So, if we
attempt to calculate the rate of expansion for the
universe, we first have to understand how fast a distant
object was moving when the light was emitted. Plus, we have
to consider the apparent fact that we here on Earth are
not moving away from the source of the Big Bang at the
same rate as the distant object emitting the light. Depending upon
who you ask, we are either moving faster now or we were
moving faster in the distant past. Red
shift calculations appear to use the “universal speed of
light” based upon how the velocity of light is measured
here on Earth.^{[12]} If the
light being measured is actually traveling slower (or
faster) than assumed, the calculated recession speeds of
distant galaxies will be incorrect. Principle-based
theories and Constructive Theories When
reading scientific papers which mention the speed of
light, it often seems that there is “an elephant in the
room,” i.e., there is an obvious problem that everyone
is aware of, but no one wants to talk about because it
will generate heated arguments if you do. “Einstein's
relativity theory was presented as a PRINCIPLED, rather
than a CONSTRUCTIVE, theory. A principled theory is one
that begins with principles and then uses these
principles to explain the phenomena; a constructive
theory starts with the observations and culminates in
theories that explain and reconcile those observations.
Einstein's principled account began with the postulate
that the laws of science should appear the same to all
freely moving observers. In particular, all observers
should measure the speed of light as the same regardless
of how fast they are moving. Thus, there is no
‘universal time’ that all clocks measure; rather,
everyone has his or her own personal time. If one person
is moving with respect to another, their clocks will not
agree. To an observer moving in one frame of reference
with uniform velocity relative to a second frame of
reference, the clock in the second frame will appear to
move more slowly than his own clock.”^{[13]} The
Constructive theory that light does not travel at a
fixed speed uses the same principles, but uses observations
to come to a somewhat different conclusion. Principled
theory says lengths and times must change for different
inertial observers because the speed of light is
constant. It
does not explain how the speed of light changes time. The
Constructive theory presented here explains how time
changes the speed of light. And it explains
how that conclusion can be tested. We have
equipment today – such as atomic clocks – that Einstein
didn’t have. It
seems that many scientists know about the problem of
Time Dilated Light, but since no one knows how to measure the
speed of light coming from distant objects, they ignore
the problem by just falsely assuming that all incoming
light comes at the same speed officially measured on
Earth. The
speed of light on Earth is measured by firing a photon a
specific distance and timing how long it takes to get
from the photon gun to the target. If you
tried to use two clocks, one at the photon gun and
another at the target, you would have serious problems
getting the two clocks to be synchronous. So, they just
use one clock. A
time measurement is taken when a photon is fired a
specific distance to a mirror, and then another
measurement is taken when the photon bounces back to a
target next to the photon gun which is connected to the
same clock. But
how do you measure the speed of a photon coming from a
distant star when you do not know the exact time at the
location where the photon was emitted nor how far away
the star really is?
Answer:
you just use the speed of light as it is measured here
on earth and ignore the fact that it is not correct
while hoping that it is not too wildly incorrect. When
a slower than “normal” beam of light reaches a red-shift
detector, the detector will measure the wave length as
being longer than it really is because it took longer
than “normal” for the complete wave to arrive. Many
things about the nature of dark energy remain matters of
speculation.^{[14]} A 2003 article
in Physics today titled “Supernovae, Dark Energy, and
the Accelerating Universe”^{[15]} by Saul
Perlmutter indicates that the paper uses a universal
standard for the “speed of light,” a standard which I
postulate does not exist.
Moreover, since Perlmutter’s paper uses
supernovae as “standard candles,” he appears to use
objects whose gravitational time-dilated light could
travel at velocities much slower than the Earth standard
for “the speed of light,” and he may or may not have
taken into consideration the question of whether the
light emitted from the atoms of an exploding star
will be traveling at a different speed than light
emitted from atoms in a normal star. Dark Energy
seems to be based upon one false assumption piled atop
another because the “elephant in the room” is being
ignored. Conclusion Every atom in
the universe is its own clock and measures time at its
own rate. When
it emits a photon or ray of light, it emits it at
299,292.458 kilometers per the atom’s
second. Thus,
in this constructive theory, every photon or ray of
light coming to Earth from space may be coming at a
different speed. Any
theory that depends upon a “universal fixed speed of
light” contains a logical flaw. While light
may be measured at 299,792.458 kilometers per second
everywhere, such as at the top of a mountain and at the
bottom of a mountain, a second is longer at the bottom
of the mountain than at the top of the mountain. There have
been experiments which show that time speeds up as you
move upward from the surface of the earth.^{[16]} Measurements
of the speed of light have also been done at various
locations. At
the 1983 Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures, the
following SI (Systeme International) definition of the
meter was adopted: The
metre is the length of the path travelled by light in
vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a
second.^{ [17]} This defines
the speed of light in vacuum to be exactly 299,792.458
kps. Unfortunately
it doesn't mention anything about inertial frames, but
you can consider a measurement in an inertial frame to
be implied. It
is the speed of light at the location of the
measurement. And it is
generally believed that the speed of light is only
guaranteed to have a value of 299,792.458 kps in a
vacuum when measured by someone situated right next to
it. A validation
of this Constructive Time Dilated Light Theory simply
needs someone to use atomic clocks to measure both the
speed of light and the
length of a second at some high location (example:
Denver) and at some low location (example: New York
City) to determine if the speed of light is “the same”
in both locations.
If it is, that is conclusive evidence that the
speed of light actually different
in the two locations, because it has been repeatedly
proved that the atomic clocks will show that the length
of a second was different. References ^{[1]} Einstein, Albert (1905) – On the
Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies. Einstein_1905_relativity
annotated.pdf ^{[2]} https://www.reference.com/science/light-created-d605948a20c2f7de ^{[3] }https://van.physics.illinois.edu/qa/listing.php?id=2030 ^{[4]}^{ }https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emission_theory ^{[5]}^{ }R. S. Shankland (1963) -^{ }Conversations with
Albert Einstein. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1963AmJPh..31...47S ^{[6] }Lake, Edward G (2016)
– What is Time?
http://vixra.org/pdf/1602.0281v2.pdf ^{[7]} Lake, Edward G (2015) – Time Dilation
Re-Visualized http://vixra.org/pdf/1505.0234v1.pdf ^{[8]} http://keisan.casio.com/exec/system/1224059993^{} ^{[9] }http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/ita/06_3.shtml ^{[10]} http://skyserver.sdss.org/dr1/en/astro/universe/universe.asp ^{[11]} https://astrosociety.org/edu/publications/tnl/71/howfast.html ^{[12]} http://astro.wku.edu/astr106/Hubble_intro.html ^{[13] }http://www.sparknotes.com/biography/einstein/section5.rhtml^{} ^{[14]}
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_energy ^{[15]} Perlmutter, Saul (2013) - Supernovae, Dark
Energy, and the Accelerating Universe http://www-supernova.lbl.gov/PhysicsTodayArticle.pdf ^{[17]} http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Relativity/SpeedOfLight/speed_of_light.html |